The majority of the deaths were on the date of the tornado exposure [ A total of 20 deaths were indirectly related to the tornados: seven from smoke and carbon monoxide asphyxiation, four from cardiovascular events, three from medical equipment failure during a power failure, two from medical complications secondary to tornado injuries, two from motor vehicle crashes, and two from falls or injuries during cleanup Table 2.
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Corresponding contributor: Rebecca S. Noe, rnoe cdc. The southeastern United States is considered particularly vulnerable to tornado fatalities because of the high concentration of mobile homes and tornados with EF-4 and EF-5 ratings 6. Nearly half of the deadly tornadoes in this disaster reached EF-4 or EF The precise strength and geographic extent of a tornado track are not determined until after an event; therefore, persons should prepare for the worst-case scenario when they receive a tornado warning 1.
Federal and state assessments conducted after this disaster found a general inadequacy of available storm shelters in the impacted areas 1,3,9. The overall magnitude of tornado-related deaths observed in the wake of the disaster and the high proportion of deaths occurring in single-family homes support current CDC recommendations to shelter in a safe room, take personal protective actions, and develop a disaster-preparedness plan ahead of time 7. A safe room is either an underground shelter, such as the interior part of a basement, or a specific tornado-safe room that is a hardened e.
Personal protective actions include preparing a safe room with items to provide protection of the body, including the head, and remaining informed of storm watches and warnings by using a weather band radio or other means 1,7. Currently, no data are available regarding the effectiveness of helmet use to prevent head injuries during a tornado. If persons choose to use helmets to protect their heads, they should know where the helmets are and have them readily accessible, because time to react might be short.
Choosing to use helmets to protect the head should not be considered an alternative to seeking appropriate shelter. Tornado preparedness also should include preparation for power outages e. The findings in this report are subject to at least two limitations. First, spatial analysis might not accurately reflect the exact location of death or tornado-relatedness because of geocoding limitations, tornado track overlap, and path estimates based on few NWS survey points 1,6.
For this reason, the exposed population and rates were not estimated or calculated. Second, data on warnings heard, protective actions taken, and housing damage incurred are not described in this report because the Red Cross did not collect these data in all five affected states. Given the number of fatalities and current limitations in determining a tornado's characteristics, increased awareness of the need to prepare for the worst-case scenario by pre-identifying and sheltering in an adequate tornado-safe room during a tornado remain critical to saving lives 5,6.
The southeastern United States is considered particularly vulnerable to tornado fatalities because of the high concentration of mobile homes and frequency of EF-4 and EF-5 tornadoes. Traumatic injury, including head injury, is the leading cause of death during tornadoes. Although extensive public health warnings were broadcast before the tornadoes touched down, this was the third-deadliest tornado disaster in U.
To prevent tornado-related fatalities, public health messaging needs to specify what constitutes a safe room and to increase awareness that these should be used during all tornadoes. Spatial analysis of health impacts of tornadoes using GIS provides a better understanding of risk factors and the underlying characteristics of the affected population for public health preparedness and response. All direct and indirect tornado-related fatalities and associated tornado tracks — southeastern United States, April 25—28, Alternate Text: The figure above shows all direct and indirect tornado-related fatalities and associated tornado tracks in the southeastern United States, during April , A total of fatalities caused by 27 tornadoes occurred in five states Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee ; 15 of the 27 deadly tornadoes reached level 4 or 5 on the Enhanced Fujita scale.
TABLE 1. Number and percentage of tornado fatalities, by date of death, location of injury, and location of body recovery or death — five states, southeastern United States, April 25—28, TABLE 2. Number and percentage of fatalities, by tornado-relatedness and cause of death — five states, southeastern United States, April 25—28, Indirect were those deaths attributed to unsafe or unhealthy conditions, or conditions that cause a loss or disruption of usual services that contributed to the death.
Unsafe or unhealthy conditions include hazardous road conditions, stressful environment resulting in myocardial infarction, and falls while escaping tornado. Disruptions of usual services include interruption of utilities or medical supplies or services e. Use of trade names and commercial sources is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the U. Department of Health and Human Services. CDC is not responsible for the content of pages found at these sites. This conversion might result in character translation or format errors in the HTML version.
An original paper copy of this issue can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U. Contact GPO for current prices. Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content. Protecting People. Search The CDC. Also included are minute books of literary and social clubs, Atwater, James D. Includes correspondence, talks, subject files, teaching materials, papers related to writing projects, and other materials. Included are miscellaneous papers, , the store ledger of Aime Audibert, , and shipping receipts of M.
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Tickell and Son, Allen, Wm. Russell, S. Waddell and Alexander M. A deed of Robert Aull, Avery, James H. Includes personal papers, photographs and other materials relating to the life, family, and work of Babcock. Babcock, Jean Coover Papers, , K 7 cubic feet Family, personal, and professional materials of Babcock, a ballerina and dance instructor. Family papers include photographs, printed materials, ephemera, and material regarding her father's his job as a railroad engineer.
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Personal and professional papers include correspondence; photographs; clippings; programs from dance and theatre performances; material documenting her ballet career in Germany and Canada; and administrative and financial records of her Kansas City dance schools. Bacon, Robert B. Bacon but also of George E. Chambers and others.
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Bailey, Alfred K. Bailey up to the Civil War. Tells of trek to Illinois from Tennessee. He joined the Union Army. Also material about Joseph A. Howe and his joining the Confederate Army in His sons held the James boys' horses for five cents worth of candy. The collection also contains personal papers such as correspondence and certificates pertaining to the family and family-friends as well as individual photographs of members of the family.
Baldwin, Mark and Mary K. Mark worked with Curtis Marbut at the U. Balot and Agron Family Papers, , K 1 folder Reunion booklet, the Agron-Eisberg Chronicle, containing family tree, photographs and family history. Baltzell-Chambers Family, Papers, , C 0. The papers consist of correspondence, photographs, a scrapbook, and a genealogy and family history compiled and written by Jerrilee Cain.
The collection also contains graduation memorabilia, a high school yearbook, land deeds, and military discharge papers from the Civil War. Bangert Family Papers, SP 0. Bankert, Zetta E. Bankert collection consists of photographs and her manuscript about vacant houses in Missouri entitled, "This, My House.
Barnds, William Fletcher , Papers, ss, C 0. Barnes Papers consist of the diaries, correspondence, photographs, financial records, and miscellaneous material of a Marston, Missouri, businessman and University of Missouri graduate. The Barnes family owned and operated a series of successful business enterprises in southeastern Missouri during the early twentieth century. He was a native of Pennsylvania and freighter who operated from the railhead of the Southwest Branch of the Pacific Railroad in Phelps County before moving to Lake Spring. The collection includes letters from his family in York, Pennsylvania, and from friends and business associates in Arkansas, Kansas, and Missouri.
Barnitz, George Alan , Barnitz family photographs, ca. The photographs include agricultural activities and rural farm life from the early s to s in Phelps and Dent counties. The photographs include subjects such as cattle and hog raising, baling hay, showing livestock and the Lake Spring Homemaker's Club in Barrett, J. Signed by Walter B.
Scotes, president, and Leonard W. Voley, secretary. Baskett, an ornithologist, novelist, and popular scientific writer, thanks Bay for compliments on his writings. Discussion of their work, Baskett's writings and teaching. Interview with William Dean Howells.
Comments on H. Boyeson and Bjorneson. Ellis of Boone County, Missouri, mostly dated ss. Ellis of Boone County, MO.
Louis, Montgomery City, and Mexico, Missouri. Basye Family Papers, C 3. Included are Bowling Green Methodist Episcopal Church and Cumberland Presbyterian Church registers, and early letters describing activities and family life in Missouri and other states, notably California and Wisconsin. Mining, the California gold rush, and the Civil War are also described. Numerous correspondents are women. The documents include wedding announcements, newspaper clippings, and letters written to Martin Bates, Jr. The Photographs consist of portraits of family members and friends in the form of prints, tintypes, and ambrotypes.